One of the most common kidney diseases is stones. Any disease, if detected early, can be treated effectively. Kidney stones can be symptomatic as well as asymptomatic. Even bigger stones can be largely asymptomatic if they do not obstruct urine flow.

Kidney stones can be tiny and travel through the urinary canal undetected, but others can develop to the size of a golf ball. Larger stones can cause significant discomfort when they exit the body. Kidney stones, if left untreated, can cause urinary difficulties, infections, and kidney damage.


If you or someone you know is exhibiting symptoms of Kidney stone, seek medical attention immediately.

Some kidney stones pass on their own when they are small before causing any symptoms. Larger stones block urine flow and cause painful symptoms such as:

  • Pain in the abdomen or lower back, which is intermittent and severe radiating to the groin, and testis in males is the most striking feature
  • Pain worsens during movement
  • Blood in urine
  • Pus in urine
  • Fever
  • Difficulty in urination, feeling of urgency, frequent, painful, burning urination
  • Nausea, vomiting, chills, and fever are seen in case of infection
  • Urinary retention


  • The formation of kidney stones cannot be attributed to a particular cause, but several factors increase the risk.
  • The risk factors include:
  • Dehydration: consuming inadequate amounts of water regularly for prolonged periods of time greatly increases the risk. People living in hot and dry climates and who sweat a lot are also at increased risk
  • Family history: People who have an affected family member are more likely to develop the disease
  • Certain foods: high sodium diet, oxalate, and foods that increase acid levels
  • Obesity
  • Diseases/surgery of the digestive tract: inflammatory bowel disease, gastric bypass surgery
  • Certain medical conditions: hyperparathyroidism, sarcoidosis, urinary tract infection, some cancers


  • Increase the intake of fluids.
  • Treat the underlying cause to prevent a recurrence.
  • Maintain a healthy diet; consume foods rich in calcium and avoid calcium supplements, limit salt, and animal protein.


Possible complications are not just from the stones themselves but often due to the treatment procedures.

  • Recurrence – the most common complication is that kidney stones can occur again.
  • Obstruction and infection – Blockage of the urinary tract can cause kidney damage and also can make the urinary tract susceptible to infection.


The treatment will focus on symptom management and stone removal. There are several approaches to this. The treatment will include large consumption of fluids either orally or intravenously, and pain relief drugs to aid with the passing of stones.


Foods to eat:

  • Calcium-rich foods such as legumes, dark green vegetables, nuts, and milk. Low Calcium diets increase kidney stone risk.
  • Drink plenty of water and fluids.

Foods to avoid:

  • Foods rich in sodium- salty processed foods
  • Foods rich in oxalate- spinach, chocolate, beets, rhubarb, soy products
  • Animal protein- beef, poultry, fish, pork

Note: Pls consult your doctor for any advice